Many breeds but just one Dog
1. GREY WOLF: it is the common ancestor of all today's dogs. It evolved 300,000 years ago, giving itself a strong social organization. It is still the biggest wild dog today, fiery hunter, is wary of the humans who almost extinguished it.
2. DOMESTIC DOG: all today’s dogs – canis familiaris – descend from the Gray Wolf, of which they retain many instincts. Recent fossils have shown that differentiation began at least 15,000 years ago in the Central Asia’s steppes, between Mongolia and Nepal. Today there are more than 350 domestic dog breeds, but zoologists not consider them as separate species.
3. HOUND: they are fast and vigorous; bred for their stamina and speed. Generally medium-sized and short-haired, Pharaon Hounds are pictured on Egyptian tombs dating back to 3,000 BC. and were used for hunting trips in the Nile valley. Greyhound, Podenco Ibicenco, Saluki are well-known part of this group, while the Sloughi, originally from North Africa and dating back to 8000 years ago, is the oldest existing breed in the world. They use their sight and/or nose to follow the trail. They are not always feel comfortable for a city life.
4. SLED DOG: the Inuit, but also other people of the North, have used these dogs since prehistoric times to pull their sleds on icy or snowy surfaces, until the arrival of the most recent snowmobiles. The Greenlandic, Eskimo, Alaskan Malamute, and Norsk dog are all breeds that date back to before 1000 BC.
5. WORKING DOG: for thousands of centuries, humans have used the great instinct of dogs to train them to perform specific tasks, from keeping herds to protecting property. The great difference in appearance and size of this group reflects the multiplicity of tasks these dogs have held over the centuries. The oldest specimens of this group are the Carolina Dog, a faithful companion of the Native Americans, and the Mastiff, which Julius Caesar already praised for bravery in battle during the invasion of Britain.
6. WATCH DOG: one of the oldest and famous job held by the dogs, infer from its great instinct for the custody of the territory, is the defense of properties. A role already mythologized in ancient Greece in the mighty Cerberus, the terrific hell-dog guarding the gates of Avernus.
7. SHEPHERD DOG: dynamic, intelligent and fair, they control the movement of livestock - sheep and herds, but even reindeer and chickens. In the past they were bigger size because they also had to protect animals from foxes and bears. They all have an irresistible magnetic gaze and a beautiful coat. The oldest surviving breed of sheepdog is the Welsh Corgi Cardigan with distinctive fox ears.
8. COMPANION DOG: bred as pets and non-utility dogs, they are extremely sweet and affectionate with their owners. Dogs similar to the Italian Greyhound have often been found mummified inside Egyptian sarcophagi, but they were already present in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD). Popular in European royal courts since the Middle Ages, they are most often shortened versions of larger dogs. The Maltese, the oldest extant breed of companion dog, appears to have been introduced to Europe by Phoenician merchants in 500 BC. This group includes a great variety of structures and sizes.
9. HUNTING DOG: very intelligent, docile, obedient and sensitives. They were originally hunting companions who had to chase game and bring the prey back to the master. Their deeply loyalty has earned a closest place in the family. The Vizla (or Hungarian Bracco) accompanied the Magyars during the invasions of the country. This group includes Spaniel, Setter, Retriver and Pointer.
10. POINTING DOG: instead of chasing the prey they stop, signaling its presence. They once crouched on their hind legs - hence the term "setter"; but today the signaling takes place in an upright position with one paw raised - hence the term "pointer". They were in fact selected after the advent of firearms because the hunting method changed.
11. TRACK DOG: also called track dogs, through the sense of smell they follow the olfactory traces or, in some cases, blood traces even after 48 hours. Its specific gift is that of not being distracted by other leads. Their selection began in the Middle Ages.
12. RESCUE DOG: trained to save people, they split into avalanche dogs and water rescue dogs. The former ones were already used in modern times by Swiss monks on the Alpine mountains to trace trails in fresh snow and find people buried under the snow.
13. POLICE DOG: form an indissoluble tandem with their trainer. They can learn to "arrest" suspects, to recognize smells and follow traces; or as an anti-drug, explosive and even the banknote dog.
14. TERRIER: small but tenacious; brave and daring, they are watchful dogs with a tendency to explore the terrain and burrows. Descendants of ancient breeds now extinct, this group has been selected for the last 100 years in Britain exclusively for fox hunting. Most are small in size and were once used on farms to hunt mice. They do not always harmonize with their fellows.
15. GUIDE DOG: they are used for both blind and deaf people. The first training school was founded in Germany during the First World War to help the wounded.